Discussion on the attraction system adopted by the pitcher in nepenthes rafflesiana

I need some assistance with these assignment. the attraction system adopted by the pitcher in nepenthes rafflesiana Thank you in advance for the help! Nepenthes of the genus Nepenthes which belong to the family of Nepenthaceae is one of the most famous carnivorous plants having pitcher traps (Slack & Gate, 2000). Nepenthes have a total of more than 100 species with the bulk of species populated along with the islands of Borneo and Sumatra (Bonhomme et al., 2011).
Nepenthes pitcher plants including Nepenthes Rafflesiana have also developed specific adaptations like all other carnivorous plants due to lack of nutrients. This nutrient deficiency is a result of the habitat in which these plants grow and they are mostly dependant on insect-derived nitrogen (Gaume, Gorb & Rowe, 2002). As a result, Nepenthes have these pitcher traps to catch and trap insects and then getting nourishment by digestion and absorption.
The structural architecture of the traps of Nepenthes Rafflesiana varies according to the geometry and surface features (Gaume et al., 2002). The pitcher trap is generally composed of three distinct parts (Gaume & Di Giusto, 2009). The three parts named peristome, waxy zone, and digestive zone are all involved in their respective functions of attention, capture, and digestion. A lid known as operculum is present above the peristome. The lid prevents the rainwater from accumulating inside the pitcher and thus helps to prevent nutrient loss.
According to Di Guisto et al. (2010), Nepenthes shows heteroblastic development defined by pitcher dimorphism according to their growth and maturity. Terrestrial pitchers or lower pitchers are linked to the young species whereas the aerial or upper pitchers are associated with the mature and climbing life forms. The two pitchers thus also show different characteristics. While the aerial pitchers are elongated, shaped like a trumpet, and greenish-yellow in color the terrestrial pitchers are more winged shaped, globular and reddish-green in color.
 
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