Instructions: MLA style and at least 10 sources needed to be used. This is a research paper. Personal expectations: The paper is about confirmative action in college admission (It is better to mention some medical school admissions if possible). The stance of the paper should be CON the purely race-based confirmative action and PRO the class-based (based on socioeconomic status) confirmative action, or PRO some sort of the hybrid of race-based and class-based confirmative action Sources expectations: Here are six sources. Not all of them need to be used in the essay, but at least 4 or 5 of them are expected in the essay. And at least 10 sources need to be in the essay, so the writer would need to find another at least 4 sources based on the number of sources used listed below. Alon, Sigal. Race, Class, And Affirmative Action. Russell Sage Foundation, 2015. In this book, sociologist Sigal Alon provided a comparative analysis of race-based affirmative action in the U.S and class-based affirmative action in Isreal. Alon found that class-based affirmative action did a better job at boosting socioeconomic diversity, whereas race-based affirmative action has fostered racial and ethnic diversity. Alon argues that a hybrid model of these two kinds of affirmative action would maximize the benefits for both socioeconomically disadvantaged and minority students. Cancian, Maria. “Race-Based versus Class-Based Affirmative Action in College Admissions.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 17, No. 1 (Winter, 1998), pp. 94-105 In this paper, Cancian, dean of the McCourt School of Public Policy at Georgetown University, used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to simulate the impact of a move from race-based to class-based affirmative action in college admissions. The simulation results suggest that many minority youths will not be eligible for class-based affirmative action. Also, by all criteria used in this simulation, except consistent poverty, a substantial majority of youths who are eligible for class-based affirmative action in college admission would not be from racial or ethnic groups currently targeted for such programs. This is an objective research paper. It provided some insight that how race-based affirmative action failed to help the poor people no matter whether they are minorities or majorities. Creamer, John. “Inequalities Persist Despite Decline in Poverty For All Major Race and Hispanic Origin Groups.” , 9 Dec. 2021, In this article, Creamer, an economist from the Census Bureau with two years of federal experience focused on studying poverty and finding new ways to measure poverty, addressed that inequalities persist despite decline in poverty for all major race and Hispanic origin groups. He pointed out that black and Hispanic individuals are to 2 times more likely to experience poverty than other races. Although this article seems to counter my stance, I would use this source to argue that using class-based Affirmative Action will still benefit the black and Hispanic people the most. Kahlenberg, Richard. “Affirmative Action Should Be Based on Class, Not Race.” The Economist, 4 Sept. 2018, Kahlenberg is an American writer who is a senior fellow at The Century Foundation and has written about a variety of education issues. In this article, he pointed out that many people worry that racial preferences stigmatize beneficiaries, breed resentment, and encourage everyone to identify by race, and many people think it is unfair when a wealthy African American or Latino applicant receives a preference over a low-income white or Asian student. He writes that class-based affirmative action is not blind to history. Also, he proposed some ways to define “socioeconomically disadvantaged” students for college admission committees. Kang, Jay Caspian. “Where Does Affirmative Action Leave Asian-Americans?” The New York Times, 29 July 2021, In this article, Kang, a staff writer at the New York Times Magazine, interviewed some Asian-Americans (including South Asian, Southeast Asian, and East Asian descent and immigrants) about their thoughts on affirmative action and its effect on Asian-American students. The interviewed people think race-based affirmative action is a tool to divide people based on race and encourages people to paint a false picture about Asian-Americans with a broad stroke, creating a model-minority myth. Race-based affirmative action is supposed to help minorities, but it fails to help or even hurts socioeconomically disadvantaged Asian-Americans who are also minorities. Source: AAMC, “Table A-18: MCAT Scores and GPAs for Applicants and Matriculants to . MD-Granting Medical Schools by Race/Ethnicity, 2021-2022.” Association of American Medical Colleges, 16 Nov. 2021, This table displays the MCAT scores, GPAs, and self-identified racial and ethnic characteristics of applicants and matriculants to . MD-granting medical schools from 2021-2022. MCAT scores and GPAs are displayed by mean and standard deviation (SD). This table shows that white and Asian matriculants have higher MCAT scores and GPAs than black and Hispanic matriculants by a big margin in the most recent application cycle, which indicates that Affirmative Action goes against meritocracy because Affirmative Action allows students with lower metrics to “steal” spots from more competitive applicants.
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